Pressure vessels are used to store and transmit liquids, vapors, and gases under pressure in general. The pressure of these finds will exert pressure equally in all direction on the walls and ends of the pressure vessels. Because of the internal loading, stresses are including on certain sections of the cylinder (pressure vessel) wall.
The pressure vessels (cylindrical or spherical tanks) are generally used in engineering to store fluid under pressure
Types of pressure vessels
Pressure vessel according to the end construction
According to the end construction, the pressure vessels are may be open of end or closed end. A simple cylinder with a piston is an example of open-end vessel whereas a tank is an example of closed end vessel. Due to the fluid pressure circumferential or hoop stresses are include in case of open ended vessels whereas longitudinal stresses in addition to circumferential stresses are induced in case of closed ended vessels
Pressure vessels according to dimensions
According to the dimensions pressure vessels may be of thin shell or thick shell. The deciding factor among thin and thick shells is its wall thickness and shell diameter if the ratio t/d is less than 1/10 the vessel is said to be thin shell and if the ratio is greater than 1/10 it is said to be a thick shell. Thin shell are used in boilers, tanks and pipes whereas thick shells are used in high pressure cylinder, tanks gun barrels
Uses of pressure vessels
The pressure vessels are used fluid to store such as liquid vapors and gases under pressure. Major uses of pressure vessels are as follows
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A pressure vessel is essentially a vessel containing pressure obtained from heat application either from a direct or indirect source. The vessel proper normally terminates at -
>Face of first flange in the bolted flange connections
>The foremost circumferential joint for the welded end connections, or
>Primary threaded joint in the threaded connections
Some fine and common examples of pressure vessels include anhydrous ammonia tanks, compressed gas storage tanks (nitrogen tanks, air, oxygen, etc.), autoclaves, refrigerant vessels, chemical reactors, hot water storage tanks and hydro pneumatic tanks.
Difference Between Pressure Vessels & Boilers
The basic difference between the two is that the former is designed for holding fluids at high pressure, whereas the latter hold liquids for the purpose of boiling them with the help of a heat source. Boilers are made to generate a lot of steam for powering something, like propelling a steam engine or generating electricity. Since boilers have to withstand an enormous amount of pressure, they can be regarded as a type of pressure vessel. However, it is possible that they exist simply for creating steam or hot water at a normal pressure.
Inspection Of Pressure Vessels
If a pressure vessel accidentally falls, it would do so in a catastrophic way and release a huge amount of energy as well as contents of the tank. The results of such a disaster can be varied -
>Projectiles moving at a high speed
>Shock wave generated by vessel contents
>Jeopardisation of safety of the personnel present
>Comprise of critical components
>Release of toxic or hazardous contents, production loss, environmental pollution, etc.
Pressure vessel inspection is a vital measure that can help to avert devastating accidents triggered by fall of such tanks. It can prevent great property damage and injury to workers.
Significance Of Regular Maintenance
Though inspections are extremely vital and substantially help to keep dangerous mishaps at bay, they can only determine safety of a vessel during the performance of the inspection. Once that is over, it is duty of the pressure vessel owner to exercise regular maintenance for preventing associated risks. In case any damage is encountered, no matter how small or big it is, it must at once be resolved with the help of licensed, qualified and reputed professionals in Dubai.
Thus, long story short, pressure vessels are used for a variety of purposes in different industries, but they must be manufactured, inspected and regularly repaired to prevent accidents.
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Purchasing a submersible pump is more involved than many of our customers initially think. Your application and situation are unique. As such, the submersible pump that is right for you must take these factors into account. In some instances, the right pump for your application may be more expensive than the pump it is replacing. Rather than falling back to a cheaper pump that doesn’t address all of your needs, we recommend considering the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO).
TCO is the accumulated expected costs associated with the pump throughout its service life. Understanding the concept is one thing but applying it to your budget is another. Thinking in terms of TCO for equipment usually means thinking differently about how you budget for it. But, the benefit could be thousands of dollars in savings. Below, we’ll examine three of the biggest budget issues you may have to work through.
Internal Employee CostsThe biggest argument we hear when we bring up costs for pump repairs and care is that “it’s the maintenance crew’s job and they’ll take care of it.” It’s not seen as a cost because they’re paid to do all the maintenance from pulling the pumps to changing lightbulbs. But, consider this: how many companies have maintenance teams with enough staff and time to not only fix everything that breaks, but also perform preventive maintenance work? With the right submersible pump, the time currently spent pulling and unclogging the pump could be used to do that preventive maintenance to keep the lines running and prevent additional downtime. Tracking labor costs for your internal maintenance teams will allow you to quantify the opportunity costs of poorly performing pumps.
Capital Budget vs. Operating BudgetThis argument is going to require seeing the bigger picture and the good of the company as a whole. The cost of the pump itself usually comes out of a capital budget while maintenance and repair costs come out of an operating budget. In a lot of companies that’s a big deal as each budget generally falls under different departments or owners.
We see a lot of companies who have a large operating budget, but a small capital budget. This causes them to buy a cheaper pump and then pay more for the maintenance. These companies can’t, or don’t, spend the money to buy the right pump, but can spend the additional money to fix it. When you factor in the downtime and associated costs for repair, spending the additional capital money up front more than offsets the resulting operating costs after the purchase.
Replacement and Maintenance TimingMany times, pumps fail and have to be replaced quickly at times you don’t expect. So, you go with the cheapest pump available because you only have a fraction of the budget left to use. The intension is to upgrade when the cheap pump fails. The pumps don’t last long and can rarely stand up to the job you need it to do. So, the result when factoring in all the costs is that you pay more than if you just went with the pump you really need.
Budgets should also be considered when you factor in future years for the maintenance costs. Some companies are ok with higher maintenance costs because they don’t hit the budget until next year and the year after (and so on). But, how good would you look if you came to the table with lower operating budget needs every year? What other projects could benefit from that reallocated money?
We can help you select the right pump for your application. And, we can help breakdown the TCO benefits in a way that can help you get the approvals you need. It all starts with years of experience to diagnose your needs and the expertise to recommend the pump you need, guaranteed.
Contact us at +971 4 252 2966 to request more information or to initiate a personalized evaluation of your submersible pump needs.
How often is your submersible pump clogging or failing? Worse yet, how often is that causing you to pull your pump for repairs or maintenance? Surprisingly, some of you may be pulling your clogged or inoperable pump monthly, weekly, or even daily! This is not the normal process when you have a submersible pump that is designed for your specific application, even if that’s how you’ve always done things. It’s a strong indicator that you’re using the wrong submersible pump.
A reliable submersible pump that is correctly installed should only need to be pulled annually during routine maintenance. Excessive repairs, maintenance and pump pulling causes significant costs. Downtime can run into the thousands of dollars in productivity, product scheduling and labor costs, so vigilance in maintenance protects more than just the pump.
What Are Signs that I Have the Wrong Pump?
A degradation of pump performance indicates the pump is not working efficiently or correctly. The following are the most common pump issues or causes of productivity declines. During routine maintenance, every pump should be examined for these factors:
What are Critical Elements to Evaluate When Selecting a Submersible Pump?When your supplier recommends a pump, you want to be certain they know as much as possible about the material (liquid, slurry, solids, high temp, corrosive) you are pumping, any special circumstances (high head, explosive), and your industry so they can optimize performance specifically for your application.
Industrial submersible pumps are highly specialized to their function. The right pump will help eliminate unscheduled downtime, wasted money on failing pumps, and the need to replace your pump too quickly.
To find the pump you need that will handle your application effectively, a qualified supplier will help you evaluate these critical elements:
What’s Your Next Step?
Contact a highly-trained, expert sales engineer to help you assess your current situation and your pump needs.
For more than years, its highly qualified distributors have partnered with our customers to provide reliable, long-lasting submersible pumps for their specific applications. We can help you select the right pump for the specific issues you are having. Customers receive unparalleled service from specification through installation and continued support throughout the life of the pump. Contact us at +971 4 252 2966 for more information visit submersible pump suppliers in uae.
As the trend toward submersible pumps continues to grow, are you still holding on to the belief that having the pump at floor level makes maintenance and repairs easier? It’s a common thought that seems to makes sense on the surface (no pun intended.) But, in reality, submersible pumps that are matched to your specific needs are superior to most other types of pumps. And, the right submersible pump can reduce your operating and maintenance costs, and increase your operating uptime.
If you’ve avoided submersible pumps in the past, or simply haven’t been properly introduced, keep reading to learn why you may need to move your pumping power below the floor.
Types of PumpsThere are four common types of pumps we’ll examine:
Vertical Shaft Pumps
This design has a motor that is mounted on a bearing frame that is attached to a shaft that extends down to the pumping elements. Common designs include Vertical Column Pumps, Vertical Cantilever Pumps, and Vertical Turbine Pumps. Vertical pumps are generally used for pumping clean or lightly contaminated liquids. These are becoming less common and usually only found in older plants.
Self-priming pumps are designed to lift water by creating a vacuum at the pump suction. These large, bulky, floor mounted pumps utilize a recirculation casing to create the needed suction vacuum. These can handle solids up to three inches. The pump needs to be primed initially and then, possibly, re-primed. Pump solids, cleaning solutions, and high temperature liquids can often interfere with the priming capability of a self-priming pump design.
Air Operated Diaphragm Pumps
Air operated diaphragm (AOD) or air operated double diaphragm (AODD) pumps shift compressed air back and forth between chambers to force liquid into the discharge pipe. These semi-displacement pump designs can pump higher pressures with lower flows and are useful for moving viscous fluids. There are limitations in size, amount of flow or gallons per minute, and ability to handl<s>e</s> abstract solids and abrasives.
Submersible pumps are hermetically sealed and include the driving motor and the pumping wet end elements all in a compact design. These pumps are submerged in the pumping liquid below the floor. They are designed to push fluid to the surface rather than pull like other pumps. There are varieties that can be matched and customized to handle almost any application.
Maintenance and Repair
As we mentioned above, you may have the perception that pumps above the floor are easier to maintain and repair. The truth is that the right submersible pump will actually reduce maintenance needs. A properly selected submersible pump will be able to handle municipal, commercial and industrial wastewater solids without the worry of having priming issues or clogging. This limits downtime and maintenance significantly, saving time and money.
Air operated diaphragm pumps generally require a high number of replacement parts. In addition, the check valves get plugged often, solids can build up on the pumping chamber diaphragms, and seals get worn quickly.
Self-priming pumps also clog often. They switched to a BJM high temperature/high endurance submersible shredder pump which all but eliminated the clogging. With that switch and updated piping, they only need to maintain the pump once a month.
CostsWhen considering the cost of pumps, it’s helpful to figure the Total Cost of Ownership. This tells a more complete story of costs than just looking at the purchase price. So, while a submersible pump may have a higher initial cost, the maintenance and operating costs are vastly lower than other types of pumps.
When used in the wrong applications, self-priming and AODD pumps will cause maintenance and repair costs to increase dramatically. Also, the compressed air that AODD pumps use is inherently expensive. This causes AODD pumps to cost up to five times more to operate than a submersible pump over its service life.
EfficiencyIf you choose the correct submersible pump, it’s by far the most efficient way to handle the sump application. Water pressure forces the liquid into the pump suction, so it doesn’t require extra pumping energy like a self-priming pump would require. There are different types of submersible pumps (including shredder pumps, hard metal agitator pumps, stainless steel pumps, high temperature pumps, and more) that are not available in self-priming or AODD pumps. These features allow you to customize a submersible pump for specific applications you may have that other pumps are not able to address.
Some self-priming pumps have non-clog designs to handle solids and abrasives. But, they may not be able to shred the solids for easier passage. With the type of fluid it pumps and the suction lift required, it may not be able to develop a prime every time the pump needs to start. Part of its priming features includes recirculation within the chamber to drive the self-prime, making it 10%-12% less efficient than submersible pumps in the same application.
Secondary ConsiderationsBeyond the factors above, there are some secondary considerations that may be important to you. Available working space may be at a premium in your factory or plant. Having a ground-level pump takes up an area that could be better utilized. Or, there simply may not be space available to put a ground-level pump.
Noise caused by vibrations within the pump can be an issue. Depending on the environment and physical location of the pump, the loudness can be a strong consideration. With submersible pumps being submerged, both the liquid and the walls of the sump tend to soften the noise produced.
The key is making sure that you have the right pump for your application. That means working with a supplier that is experienced and knowledgeable. We have years of expertise and partners with highly trained, qualified distributors who can diagnose your issue and design the right solution. We’ve worked with a wide variety of industries and applications to create systems to save you time, money and hassles. You’ll receive unparalleled service from specification through installation and continued support throughout the life of the pump. Contact us at +971 4 252 2966 for more information visit submersible pump suppliers in uae.
Finding the right submersible pump isn’t always easy. If you’re dealing with high temperature liquids, you may experience the frustration of a premature pump failure. Let’s review possible causes.
But first, here are the basics. A submersible pump’s electric motor generates heat that if not dissipated properly can damage the pump. In most applications, the cooler pumped liquid transfers heat away from the motor to maintain the pump within safe operating parameters.
Pumping High Temperature LiquidsPumping liquids that are hotter than room temperature with a regular submersible pump (or a “high temperature” pump that doesn’t have a high enough temperature rating) can cause a series of issues that may result in catastrophic pump failure, including the following scenario:
High Endurance for Corrosion ProtectionAnother factor in selecting the right pump is understanding the impact of pumping corrosive materials. For example, in many food and beverage applications, frequent washdowns include corrosive cleaning agents that change the pH of the pumped liquid. Stainless steel pumps are an effective solution for corrosive materials. However, stainless steel pumps dissipate heat at ~1/7th the rate of cast iron pumps. This may again lead to motor overheating and eventually pump failure.
The One Key Question You Need to AskDo you have a pump that meets your application needs? Many pump providers claim to offer high temperature pumps, but you need to ask the specific temperature and duty cycle for which their pumps are rated. High temperature/high endurance pump design offers a reliable solution to one of the most common submersible pump failure modes. BJM Pumps uses a proprietary manufacturing process to offer high temperature, high endurance pumps that are rated for continuous duty at temperatures up to 200 degrees F, including stainless steel corrosion resistant pump options.
With years of experience, we understand the issues you deal with every day and design solutions for the pump you need, guaranteed. Contact us or call +971 4 252 2966 for more information submersible pump suppliers in uae.
Municipal wastewater applications are notorious for the difficult—sometimes bizarre—solids that make it into the flow system. These applications pose several difficulties including the presence of non-biodegradable solid waste. You’re open to the public, so you’re never sure what you’re going to encounter, from underwear to Barbie dolls! Diapers and other plastic-reinforced cloth are an especially tough non-biodegradable solid.
Don’t wait until solids build up and clog your pump. Instead, avoid downtime by using these five ways to prevent submersible pump failure:
1. Use a Shredder Pump to Cut Tough Solids
Submersible solids-handling pumps are each designed for a specific function. Using the correct pump for your given application helps to prevent pump failure, unnecessary maintenance, and downtime.
Municipal wastewater solids can be very hard to break down, so submersible wastewater pumps need to be more robust. Submersible shredder pumps are ideal for these applications. Taking their name from the shredding action, shredder pumps reduce the size of solids to pass through the pump. Lower-horsepower pumps in particular need a heavy-duty shredder to break solids up before they pass through the pump.
2. Right-Size Your Pump
Once the solids pass through the pump into the discharge line, they tend to fall out of suspension and can lead to plugging of lines or pump discharges. To address this, ensure that the pump maintains a certain fluid velocity—a good rule of thumb is a minimum velocity of seven feet per second. However, this guideline requires that you first size the pump correctly.
To shred solid waste and help prevent pump failure, it’s important to right-size your pump for the correct horsepower:
3. Install a Check Valve
Another effective way to help prevent pump failure is to use a check valve attached to the discharge (outlet) of the pump to prevent back-flow and keep fluid and solids from re-entering the pump. Check valves are typically inexpensive, work automatically, and are available in many different types and sizes for different applications. Make sure to specify the correct cracking pressure (the valve’s minimum operational upstream pressure) for your given application.
4. Check Your Seal Fail Circuit
For a simple maintenance solution, install and periodically check a seal fail circuit—a device monitoring for the presence of moisture in the seal chamber. These low-maintenance devices give you a visual or audible warning when your pump’s seals begin to fail. For example, BJM’s Seal Minder® is our seal fail circuit which is standard-supplied on many of our shredder pumps. There are two seals on a BJM pump—when the first fails, water begins entering the seal chamber. By using the Seal Minder® you’ll receive an early warning to service the pump and replace the seal before water gets into the pump motor, which will prove catastrophic to its operation.
Maintenance time depends on your specific wastewater application, but we recommend replacing your seals annually. Just be sure that whenever your seal fail circuit light comes on, do it right away! Remote monitoring in the control panel saves you maintenance time spent pulling the pump to check the seal chamber oil.
5. Source Heavy-Duty Pumps for Harsh Applications
Some applications are especially damaging to submersible pumps, including saltwater, high water temperatures and high chemical concentrations. BJM shredder pumps constructed of both cast iron and stainless-steel can handle a wide variety of applications, including those with corrosive materials. We also offer robust pumps with high temperature protection (up to 200°F water temperatures).
What’s Your Next Step?
Contact a highly-trained, expert sales engineer to help you with your pump needs and to optimize your application. Make sure your pump supplier is familiar with your industry, the type of solids you’re pumping, and any special requirements you may have.
Our highly-qualified distributors have partnered with our customers to provide reliable, long-lasting submersible pumps for their specific applications. We can help you select the right pump for the specific issues you are having. Customers receive unparalleled service from specification through installation and continued support throughout the life of the pump. Contact us at +971 4 252 2966 for more information visit submersible pump suppliers in uae.
When selecting a submersible pump for your plant, you want the pump that is going to best handle the liquids and waste you deal with on a daily basis. But, choosing the right pump is step one. You need to make sure that you’re maximizing pump performance to the optimal level. Not only will this ensure you prolong the life of your submersible pump, it will minimize downtime and save maintenance and repair costs.
In general, it’s best to factor in the concepts below during the selection process. A high-quality manufacturer or distributor will help you capture the information they need to make the right recommendation and to install it to perform optimally. But, even if you’re looking to improve an already installed pump, these tips apply.
Operate at the Best Efficiency PointBest efficiency point (BEP) is defined as the flow at which the pump operates at its optimum efficiency for its impeller diameter. At BEP, you reduce the radial and axial loading on the bearings to the lowest possible value for that pump. For shredder pumps, this is the best balance point between passing solids through and having enough time to shred them sufficiently. If the flow is insufficient, the velocity will be too low to move the solids through the system. Solids in the fluid will likely drop out and settle out in the piping system, potentially leading to clogs. If there is too much velocity, the flow moves too fast through the pump and solids may not get shredded enough and cause clogs.
Either scenario causes inefficiencies as the radial loading increases. Continuous failures, such as seal failure due to shaft deflection or repeated bearing failures, are signs that you are too far away from your BEP. An orifice plate or throttling valve can help to increase total dynamic head, or a bypass line back into the wet well can allow more flow through. This bypass line will also provide the benefit of mixing the wet well and breaking up large clumps of solids.
Minimize the Number of Pump Cycles per HourBalancing the influent rate and discharge rate minimizes the number of pump starts. The influent rate is the water coming into the sump, while the discharge rate is the amount of flow the pump is producing. If you have a wet well that’s too small, you’ll have to fill it up and drain it down repeatedly. You may end up short-cycling the pump every minute or two until the motor overheats and fails. Fewer cycles keeps the motor cooler and the pump running more smoothly.
There are a number of ways to minimize the cycles, including:
Match Pipe Size to Pump Size to Increase VelocityA velocity between 2-4 feet per second used to be enough to minimize the wear of the piping system. With flushable wipes and more solids in wastewater systems, you now need to aim for seven feet per second to avoid solids settling out in the line and plugging the system.
For slurries and heavier solids, you may need even more velocity. It depends on the specific gravity and concentration of the solids in your liquid. If you don’t have enough velocity in the vertical leg, the solids will sit and swirl. When the pump stops, they flow back into the pump and cause clogging.
The pump size should match the pipe size. For example, you should use a 3-inch pump if you have 3-inch piping. Velocity is heavily affected by the pipe size. It’s critical that pipes are not oversized or undersized. Oversized piping requires higher velocity to keep the solids from falling out of the flow and clogging the system. Undersized piping increases the head to the system. This leads to more friction and less flow.
Additional Optimization Tips for Installed PumpsAs mentioned above, these recommendations are best handled during pump selection and installation. But, for those with installed pumps, these additional tips will also help minimize your repair costs:
Our highly-qualified distributors have partnered with our customers to recommend reliable, long-lasting submersible pumps for their specific applications. We have the expertise to help you maximize your pump’s performance. Customers receive unparalleled service from specification through installation and continued support throughout the life of the pump. Contact us or call us at +971 4 252 2966 for more information visit submersible pump suppliers in uae.
Dewatering is an aspect of almost all construction projects. Examples include lowering the water table prior to excavation, removing standing water or planning for rainfall. Overlooking or underestimating dewatering increases your costs and causes delays in construction.
Selecting the right construction dewatering pump can have huge implications on project success. Many construction project managers underestimate the importance of selecting the right pump. Premature pump wear or unexpected failure can significantly increase project expenses and delay project schedules.
The best pump choice for construction dewatering is a submersible pump. Some project managers use self-priming pumps because they are more portable. However, a long suction hose going into your self-priming pump causes frequent loss of prime and stalled pumps. Also, self-priming pumps tend to only dewater solids in the pit rather than remove them.
Below, we’ll explore the main considerations for selecting the right submersible pump.
Where Are You Pumping the Water?The first thing you need to understand is where the water is coming from and where you want it go. Is it rain water or ground water? Are you pumping it into the sewer, a holding pond or drainage ditch? If it’s a sewer, be sure it can handle the extra influx of water.
Once you know where it’s going, understand the path to get the water there. You’ll need to know the static head (vertical distance the pump needs to push the liquid) and how far it needs to travel. Knowing how far the water will travel helps you calculate friction head losses in your piping system. Friction loss is commonly overlooked, but can have a major impact on the pump size you need. For example, rubber hoses or fire hoses create higher friction losses than PVC piping. This means you need more energy to move the water. Being too far off in your calculations can cause the pump to dead head and not provide any flow. Also, a lower than expected flow rate may not be enough to keep up with the inflow.
Once you have the right flow rate (gallons per minute – GPM) and head calculations, you can research pumps and their performance curves. The curves show you the level of performance the pumps will deliver. Your pump supplier can show you how to read the curves and help you determine if the pump will operate within the optimal levels. A pump operating too far from optimal flow and head rates can vibrate and cavitate which damages the seals and bearings.
What Size Generator Do You Need?Most constructions sites don’t have power so construction managers bring in generators. The motor horsepower of the selected pump will determine the generator size you need. Underestimating the generator size results in the pump not coming up to speed which will burn out capacitors in the motor (single phase only). If you don’t know, it’s important that you ask your supplier how much power you need as they may not always tell you. Most construction managers don’t realize they’re running an undersized generator until it ruins the pump motor.
What Is In your Water?Just as important as the factors above is knowing what makes up your liquid. You’re dealing with outside elements, so the water likely includes some types of solids. The type and size of the solids have a major impact on the pump you need. With sand or other abrasives in the soil, you’ll likely need a durable light slurry pump. A pump with an agitator to keep particles from settling at the bottom of the pit where clogs can result is even better.
On other sites, you may deal with larger solids like leaves, branches, and even bottles and cans in the pit. In these cases, you’ll need a solids handling pump to pass these types of solids through the pump. Heavier solids require shredder pumps.
Our highly-qualified distributors have partnered with our customers to provide reliable, long-lasting submersible pumps for construction applications. We can help you select the right pump for the specific issues you are having. Customers receive unparalleled service from specification through installation and continued support throughout the life of the pump. Contact us at +971 4 252 2966 or more information visit submersible pump suppliers in uae.
Let’s admit it – submersible pumps typically aren’t needed in sparkling, pristine environments. They’re meant to go down into dark, wet sumps, sewers, mines and muddy excavations. For the most part, correctly-selected and sized pumps do a terrific job pumping fluid. But not all fluids and operating environments are equal. Some are harsh and present hazards that require specific pumps to handle them.
What is a “harsh environment?” This refers to applications in which the liquid you are trying to pump contains materials that are especially damaging to a regular pump and/or the environment as a whole. Pumps not designed to handle harsh environments will likely lead to increased repair costs for your pump, as well as downtime that halts production. The good news is that there are pumps available that are built to handle these difficult applications.
For more info contact submersible pump suppliers in uae or call us at +971 4 252 2966.